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Beyond Susan Carter's summary of the genus in Eggli (2002), we have relied on a number of people, including John Lavranos, Mike Gilbert, Philippe Bisseret, Meena Singh, Gerhard Marx, and Susan Carter to help us sort out the Euphorbias. Additional resources include:

Carter, S., and A.R. Smith, 1988, Euphorbiaceae, in the Flora of Tropical East Africa: A.A. Balkema, The Netherlands

Eggli, U. (editor), 2002, Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Dicotyledons: Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

Singh, M., 1994, Succulent Euphorbiaceae of India: New Delhi, India.

Singh, M., 2002, Succulent plants of India: Noida, India.

White, A, Dyer, R.A., and Sloane, B.L., 1941, The Succulent Euphorbieae (southern Africa): Abbey Garden Press, Pasadena, California (2 volumes).


Our primary reference on this wonderful genus is Eggli (2001) with heavy reliance on:

Bally, P.R.O., 1961, The genus Monadenium: Benteli Publishers, Berne, Switzerland.

Pritchard, A., 2010, Monadenium:Cactus & Co., Italy.

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